Wednesday, July 1, 2020


Sleight of Hand: Practical Manual of Legerdemain for Amateurs and ...In Chapter 9, we are taught how we are strongly drawn to imitate someone's gaze through magic tricks. The misdirection technique is "the action or process of directing someone to the wrong place or in the wrong direction." This is used in magic tricks to lead eye gaze. Recent research is showing how you are strongly drawn to imitate the gaze of another person with the use of sleight-of-hand technique which refers to " refers to fine motor skills when used by performing artists in different art forms to entertain or manipulate. It is closely associated with close-up magic, card magic, card flourishing and stealing." We don't see how the magician manipulates the props because we he is distracting us through his gaze. Instead of looking at what he is doing, we tend to look and focus where he is looking.

Structured Reflected Sound

Direct Sound and Reflected SoundStructure reflected sound is used by our brain to perceive properties of silent objects. It is the use of obstructed sound which has been reflected away from our ears. An acoustic hole is left where the obstruction is positioned. The book states, "while you may not have ever actively echolocated until today, your brain is likely using reflected sound all the time, mostly without your conscience awareness." It doesn't necessarily determine the size or shape of objects through reflected sound but it informs you of major structures in your immediate surroundings.

Friday, June 26, 2020

Out of body experiences

Neuroscientists are trying to understand out of body experiences instead of labeling them as paranormal. Like the rubber hand illusion which can be considered an out of body experience. During this illusion the body takes the rubber hand and adapts it to its own. In this article neuroscientist are giving logically explanations on why this is an occurrence that our mind create and not paranormal.


Walt Disney created famous theme parks around the world. It’s no secret that all the rides and shops around the park have certain smells that trigger different emotions for guest. For example, on Main Street by the bakery Disney pumps out the smells of bake goods making guest more likely to go in and buy a treat. As we learned that smells trigger emotions in our brains which is also used as a advertising tactic but the Disney empire.

Healthy girl completely loses sight

As we read, being visually impaired hasn’t stopped individuals from being successful. You tuber, Molly Burke has been legally blind since she was fourteen and has created a YouTube about her experience adapting to the different life style. Since she has a rare eye disease she was born healthy but soon lost all memories of childhood and even memories of what she has looked like before and explains that because she is blind she doesn’t have the ability to dream. When she was newly diagnosed it caused herself to fall into a sever depression but decided to turn that around and retract herself how to be as independent as she can. She uses brail and touch audio on her phone to text, online shop, use social media as well as post to YouTube doing makeup and even driving a car in Shane Dawson’s video “ A blind girl drives my car” 

Thursday, June 25, 2020

Lip Reading

Lip reading is a technique of understanding speech by visually interpreting the movements of the lips, face and tongue when sound is not available. Lip reading is mostly used by deaf and hard of hearing people even though most people with normal hearing have processed speech this way. Surprisingly, it is used more often than we may know. Lip reading is also used when learning a new language. This chapter has helped me learn that lip reading doesn't only influence the auditory brain. It can also influence the brain regions we use to produce speech. 

Attached video below:


Connor Crosby

          Anosmia is when a person has lost the sense of smell. This may be caused by a severe head

injury, an infection or a blockage of the nose. The loss of smell has a very large impact on other

senses as well. For example studies show that when you cannot smell food it does not taste as good.

Without the ability to smell our taste buds can only detect a few flavors. Some common causes of

anosmia are old age, certain medications, cocaine abuse, or exposure to toxic chemicals.


Connor Crosby

          Tadoma is defined as the a method of communication for blind individuals. It is when a

deafblind person places their hand on another individual lips and jawline. The goal is for the fingers

to pick up the speakers jaw movement and the other to pick up the speakers throat vibrations. This

seems to be a very effective way for deafblind people to communicate with others. When Tadoma

was originally created the hope was that the deaf and blind would discover proper ways to speak

by analyzing the throat vibrations and jaw movements of others.

Out-of-Body Experience

The out-of-body experience is when a person experiences the world from a location outside of their physical body. With out-of-body experience, you feel as if you're outside of yourself and looking at your body from another perspective. I am not a video gamer myself however an example of this would be when they wear goggles that places them directly in the game. It's as if the person is in the TV playing the actual role. I personally wouldn't be able to do that without feeling really weird. It would take time to adjust if I did do this. It's incredible how our brain can change to accommodate the simplest experiences. I provided a TEDtalk below that explains the experience, our consciousness and the cognitive neuroprosthetics. The book also explains this in chapter 6.

Auditory Sensory System

Connor Crosby

        The Auditory sensory system is a system that describes humans ability to detect oncoming or 

receding objects based on the ability to hear. According to the book this sensory system is the most 

adept at allowing people to asses a threat quicker than any other sensory system. According to the 

book monkeys have the same neurophysiological response when they hear objects getting closer. 

However research has shown that the ability to anticipate when incoming objects will arrive seem 

to be inaccurate for untrained listeners. Many anticipate a much quicker arrival than reality, however 

this is also the reason why the auditory system is most effective when it comes to survival and 



A sommelier is a trained and knowledgeable wine professional that works in fine restaurants who specializes in all aspects of wine services as well as wine and food pairings.The wine experts skills are based on learned conceptual knowledge, attention to flavor configurations and language use. I provided a video that explains what a person has to do to train for the world's most elite wine exam. The video explains that a person must pass 3 exams (portion covering history, how to perfectly execute wine service and the hardest which is blind tasting). I had no idea how difficult it would be to become a sommelier being as though it doesn't sound too hard. I have been to multiple wineries that provide the details on specific wines and its definitely a great experience however i'm sure its nothing compared to becoming a sommelier. The book explains into detail what happens to the brain when a sommelier takes a sip which is very impressive.

Blind Baseball Players

Take Me Out to the Beep Baseball Game - Braille Works BlogI have played softball almost my entire life. I have also had glasses since I was in second grade, and I could not imagine trying to be a catcher without them. When I read about the Houston Heat blind baseball team, I was in shock! Of course, the modifications of the game are a little bit different than traditional baseball; however, the skill of those who are visually impaired in terms of their other senses was absolutely astonishing.

Because of the auditory approach system, the fielders are able to perfectly time when to dive for a fly ball. When they start to slowly hear the baseball coming towards them, they know it is not the time to dive. Then, once the sound starts to get faster, they know that it is coming near them and it is time to dive for the ball. The way that their other senses are able to be utilized to be able to play baseball is incredible, and they have their auditory approach system to thank for that!

Rubber Hand Illusion

Growing up watching medical shows, like Grey's Anatomy, I thought that I was well-versed in understanding how basic human functions go. However, with each psychology class I take, it is evident that I am still learning new things that the human body can do, particularly the brain.

Is that my hand? How your brain falls for the 'rubber hand illusion'

The rubber hand illusion is when an experimenter places a rubber hand in front of a participant (where his/her hand would normally be) on a table in front of him/her. The experimenter will begin to stroke the rubber hand with something like a paint brush in synchronized motions. After some time, the subject will begin to feel as if the rubber hand is their hand, and will report feeling the motions of the paint brush. However, I feel as if I would need to actually partake in this experiment to really understand the illusion, but nonetheless, it is amazing what the brain can do. Because the participant is perceiving the hand as their own, they will actually begin to feel as if the paint brush is stroking his/her hand!


When reading the explanation of echolocation, the first thing that came to mind was sea animals, such as whales and dolphin. I was completely unaware that humans are able to utilize this when other senses, specifically sight, are impaired. Echolocation is when one uses sounds that he/she makes in order to feel vibrations of other objects that are near them, perhaps to avoid them or to get closer to them.

Blind and sighted people alike can be taught to use echolocation ...

The first image that popped into my head was in the movie Finding Dory, when the beluga whale uses echolocation to find Dory when she is in the pipes and is trying to find her way out. However, those who are visually impaired are able to use this skill in order to partake in every day activities, such as hiking, bike riding, skateboarding, etc. It is not an easy skill to learn, but it can be helpful when wanting to do these actives!

Interpersonal Synchrony

Interpersonal synchrony has been shown in multiple experiments to enhance perceptions of rapport, and imitation has revealed social benefits that would facilitate positive behavior toward the person imitating you. The following video explores this phenomenon with infants, exploring the prosocial behavior of infants induced by interpersonal synchrony. 

Blind bike riding

I found this youtube video to be extremely interesting especially after learning about the blind baseball team. Just like the baseball team Daniel Kish also uses sound to be able ride his bike. He can use the sounds to tell when a car is coming or ever when he is suppose to turn. Daniel makes clicking sounds as he rides his bike as if he is own form of echo location so he can hear the sound bouncing off objects. Even when he is walking he uses his clicking sounds to hear it bounce off locations and he can tell where things are. With that sounds he can tell where buildings are, cars, poles, etc.  Daniel clicking sounds are his own human sonar and he is now able to live a everyday life without anyone else help. 

Smelling fear

It sounds crazy but you can actually smell fear.  Fear induced odors trigger improvement on certain tasks.  Certain odors can cause a heightened sense of cautiousness, which will make you act more carefully while doing certain tasks.  Smelling fear is very common in animals due to the fact that some animals are dangerous and other animals can sense that.

The Uncanny Valley

The uncanny valley has become easier to avoid as better computer technology in mapping and generating proper faces have become more and more advanced. In recent video games, the characters' faces showed emotions that, when coupled with the realistic settings and environments, seem genuine. It gets harder for us to recognize something that may not be real when computer programs are being made to create realistic-looking faces. I found this website after watching a video and it is an artificial intelligence program that compiles a face together from different photos, within its database, to create a face that does not exist.

Wednesday, June 24, 2020

Post 3 Echolocation

In the book See What I'm Saying The Extraordinary Powers of Our Five Senses, a man named Daniel Kish was never able to see. At four months he was diagnosed with retinoblastoma in both eyes and then eventually had both eyes removed. Kish does not let that stop his independence. He became an expertise with echolocation. Echolocation is the location of objects by reflected sound, they are particularly used by animals such as dolphins and bats. This allows Kish to know how close or far away an object is to him by using a clicking sound. By the age of 7 he was able to ride his bike and roller blade like any other child. Here is a video of Kish explaining about echolocation.

Post 2 Synesthesia

Synesthesia is a systematic and involuntary sensory experience induced by an unrelated stimulus. In chapter 11, Zana Devitto imagines specific colors when she looks at letters and numbers. She states, "It's not as if the letters look printed in different colored inks. The colors are lessdistinct, and seem more like they're surrounding the letters, or being projected onto them. Either way, the colors are inseparable from their specific letters." There are varieties of synesthesia, such as sounds can also induce color sensations. If you are not like Devitto, according to neurophysiological theories, everyone was once was before development pruned the extra connections. Heres a video to see if you are.


Believe it or not, there are actually benefits to imitation.  While doing tasks that require you to imitate another person, it likely makes you develop your perceptual abilities.  Motor involvement is key when it comes to imitation and most of the time we do not even realize that we are imitating.  Whether it be learning a new dance, new language, or even a new sport, we are always using imitation.

Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Blog Post #3 Phermones

    Being with my female friends for an extended period of time, or even now being in household with my sister and mother our menstruation cycles have been in sync. I remember always being so excited when me and my friends would all be in sync when I was younger and after reading chapter 4 I know realize there is scientific proof behind this thanks to Martha McClintock. 
    McClintock thought that synchronization in women occurs by repeated exposure to other women’s pheromones could induce menstrual entrainment across the women, even without their awareness. In  1998 with McCLintock and her colleague Kathleen Stern conducted a study where they took samples of underarm sweat (human pheromone secretors) of women and applied it to the upper lip of 20 other women before and during ovulation and the results showed that when the women were given the ovulation sweat, their cycles lengthened by two days. When, instead, the recipients were given the preovulation sweat, their cycles shortened by two days. This study is considered one of the more rigorous demonstrations of how sweat, and the putative pheromones it contains, can influence menstrual cycle timing.

Blog Post #2 Tadoma

Tadoma is a method of lip-reading from touch used by those who are deaf and blind to communicate with people who do not know sign language. In the book the author explains the Tadoma method used on him by a deaf and blind individual named Rick Joy. Joy did this by resting his thumb vertically on Rosenblum's chin so that its tip was just touching his lower lip. Joy then curled his index finger index under the bottom of Rosenblums' chin,  while his three other fingers gently touched Rosenblum's Adam’s apple.
Nowadays Tadoma is rarely used because there is an availability of portable text-to-Braille translation devices makes it easier for nonsigners to communicate with the deaf-blind, as well as there being a growing number of deaf-blind individuals receiving cochlear implants, and the choice of many deaf schools to deemphasize communication techniques other than sign language. 

Here is a video of one of the most famous users of the Tadoma method, Helen Keller. 

Blog Post #1 Anosmia

Anosmia is when an individual does not have the sense of smell. In the book See what I'm Saying: The Extraordinary Powers of Our Five Senses by Lawrence Rosenblum he mentions Karl Wuensch and his anosmia, and while I was reading this it made me think of this funny interview that Jason Sudeikis did awhile ago on the Conan show about having no sense of smell. Unlike Wuensch, Jason Sudeikis's anosmia has been something he has dealt with his entire life whereas Wuensch's anosmia developed over time.

Post 1 Anosmia

Anosmia is when you lose your sense to smell. Karl Wuensch lost his sense of smell which changed his like dramatically. This was a result of large polyps in his sinuses as well as severely swollen turbinates. Wuensch was unable to smell anything. Since he was unable to smell his food, he had no idea that it went bad and because 80% of flavor comes from smell, he could not taste that it went bad either. When asked what items he missed smelling he said, he did not expect to miss people as much as he did. Over 2 million Americans suffer from anosmia, just like in this video of Travis.

Post #3: Mirror Neurons

Mirror Neurons were discovered in an experiment involving monkeys by Giacomo Rizzolatti. In the mid-1990s, Rizzolatti performed an experiment at the University of Parma in Italy with monkeys by recording from cells as monkeys were grasping food (raisins) and eating them. A colleague of Rizzolatti was also grasping for raisins. The concept of mirror neurons stemmed from this experiment by the way the cells of the monkey reacted to his colleague grasping for the raisins. The motor cells of the monkey were acting as if the monkey was eating the raisins, though it was just watching. Therefore, the cells involved in receiving mouth movement were responsive to seeing mouth action, for which, the name is self-explanatory. Although there are skeptics, many researchers heavily believe in the concept of mirror neurons and believe it is a huge part of imitative behaviors, which we read on, are very significant. I attached an extremely interesting Ted Talk hosted by Shelly Richardson on mirror neurons.


What is anosmia? This key term is defined as a loss of sense of smell. It can be caused by an infection, injury or blockage. In the book, The Extraordinary Powers See of our Five Senses What I’m Saying the author includes a perfect example of someone who suffers with anosmia. Karl Wuenschu story begins when he discovered he had anosmia due to a large polyps in his sinuses. In his life he has lost and regained his smell four different times. Anosmia affects Karl when sense of smell and taste. He expresses in the book that he misses the smell of his loved ones the most. Someone who suffers from anosmia may struggle when interacting with others dye to no longer being able to smell them. 

The video that I have included is an experiment that young adults performed trying to taste different foods as they block their nasal passages. As viewers watch, it is important to recognize the reactions that are being made as they can no longer taste the food. Not only is this video educational, but it also brings a great deal of appreciation to those who can taste and smell.